step 1.dos Semantic Affairs
After sensory faculties are recognized (and you can if in case they are known which have a reasonable amount of confidence), the sort of relationship you to exists among them has to be mainly based. The most used category of semantic relationships is provided about society from historic semantics, that is, new language accustomed establish synchronic affairs ranging from keyword meanings is simply the just like the fresh new vocabulary used to identify diachronic transform from meaning. From the best instance, in the event that sense good are synchronically pertaining to experience b of the metonymy, next a method from metonymy keeps acted diachronically to give sense a towards feel b: diachronic systems out-of semasiological change reappear synchronically due to the fact semantic relationships certainly phrase meanings.
The newest pc additionally the stored factors, or perhaps the mouse additionally the pointer, keeps a romance out of genuine-globe connectedness which is constantly captured from the notion of ‘contiguity
Brand new five first sizes are expertise, generalization, metaphor, and metonymy (discussed here, from a good diachronic direction, because components in place of synchronic affairs). Regarding semantic expertise, the new meaning try a restriction of dated meaning: the fresh new definition try a good subcase of the dated. Classical examples of specialization was corn (to start with a wages-label https://datingranking.net/cs/swinglifestyle-recenze/ for everyone categories of grain, today formal to help you ‘wheat’ when you look at the England, so you’re able to ‘oats’ for the Scotland, and also to ‘maize’ in the usa), starve (swinging out-of ‘so you can die’ to help you ‘to perish of hunger’), and you can king (originally ‘wife, lady,’ now simply for ‘king’s girlfriend, otherwise female sovereign’). Examples of generalization are moonlight (mainly brand new earth’s satellite, but expanded to your earth’s satellite), and you will French arriver (which in the first place intended ‘to arrive the new river’s shore, to embank,’ however, and that today signifies ‘to arrive a great destination’ typically). There’s a lot regarding terminological version about the specialty and you may generalization. ‘Restriction’ and you may ‘narrowing’ out of meaning equivalent ‘expertise,’ when you find yourself ‘extension,’ ‘schematization,’ and you will ‘broadening’ out of meaning equal ‘generalization.’ Plus, brand new meanings on it can be stated so you’re able to captivate relations off taxonomical subordination otherwise superordination: for the an effective taxonomy (a tree-for example hierarchical classification) of concepts, the brand new official definition is actually under with regard to the first you to, while the generalized meaning try superordinate pertaining to the original.
Such as specialty and you will generalization, it’s easier and traditional introducing metaphor and you can metonymy together, even though the dating isn’t as close like with the latest former couple. (Regarding metaphor and you can metonymy follows inside the point step one.six, “Abstract Metaphor and you may Metonymy.”) Metaphor will then be supposed to be centered on a relationship from similarity between your old therefore the brand new understanding, and you will metonymy towards a romance out of contiguity. Current pc conditions productivity samples of both designs. The fresh desktop of one’s screen, by way of example, is not the identical to this new pc of one’s workplace table-other than in the two cases, simple fact is that room (an exact area in one single situation, a virtual one out of additional) the place you condition plenty of products that you frequently use otherwise you to urgently need desire. The device desktop computer, simply put, is not literally a desktop about brand new feel, however it features a functional resemblance for the unique: the system reading are an excellent metaphorical extension of your amazing office furniture learning. Useful similarities in addition to underlie metaphorical phrases eg save, clipboard, document, folder, slashed, and you may paste. Mouse, likewise, is also metaphorically passionate, however, right here, the latest metaphorical resemblance concerns profile instead of mode. But now thought a statement to your impression that your pc keeps you hectic for another two weeks, otherwise which you query aloud in which your mouse went whenever you’re seeking to to track down the fresh new tip to the display. In such instances, pc and you may mouse are utilized metonymically. About former case, it’s not the newest virtual space therefore that is relevant, nevertheless items that is actually held around. In the latter situation, it is not the fresh new mouse as a result (the point that you own on the hands) which you consider, nevertheless pointer into the screen which is work by mouse. ’ When, such as, one drinks an entire container, this isn’t the newest package but merely their material which can be consumed: bottles can be used to relate to a certain brand of container, as well as the (spatially contiguous) belongings in you to definitely container. When lexical semanticians suggest that metonymical alter depend on contiguity, contiguity really should not be know when you look at the a slim sense once the it comes down to help you spatial distance simply, however, much more generally because the a general name for various contacts into the the newest spatial, temporary, or causal domain name.